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Copyright infringement case
Learning Copyright Law through Copyright Infringement Cases
Copyright infringement cases can be both costly and time consuming. Considering copyright infringement is something that isn?t as easily defined as theft or speeding, there are numerous copyright infringement cases that are changing the way copyright law is viewed in the United States of America. By reviewing a few of these copyright infringement cases, you?ll be able to get a better idea of what is, and is not, acceptable use of copyrighted works.
As a forward, however, you?ll need to know a little bit about copyright law. Most copyright lawsuits are brought to the courts because a copyright owner has found their copyright is being used outside the copyright laws. This usually means that the copyright holder hadn?t been asked for permission to use the work, or if they had, that the work is not being used in an agreed-upon context or they have not been paid royalties. The copyright infringement cases, listed below, give a sampling of what goes to the Supreme Court in copyright infringement.
Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co (6th Cir. 1996)
This copyright infringement case was brought upon the Supreme Court in 1996 regarding the copyright of a database. The supreme court, in this instance, decided that compilations of data (such as in a database) are only protected by copyright when they are ?arranged and selected in an original manner.? Although the level of originality needed to make the database copyright-able is not very high, the pages of a directory such as a phone book are not protect-able because the data contained therein is arranged geographically, then alphabetically. Because of this, the data was not original enough to warrant a copyright infringement charge, and the competing telephone company was allowed to tap into their competitors? database and use that data in their own work without liability.
Princeton University Press v. Michigan Document Services, Inc (6th Cir 1996)
This case has to do with the ?fair use? law, which is defined in the Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. § 107. In this case, a photocopying service was sued for copyright infringement for making ?course packs? for the University of Michigan. In this case, a course pack was a group of reading materials assigned by a professor ? then the course pack was bound together by a professional copy shop.
In the fair use system, there is a system available for payment of copyright fees to publishers whose works are used in course materials, the printing shop owner refused to pay the copyright cost. When it went to the Supreme Court, they analyzed the fair use code and found that it was NOT fair use, and the printing shop had to pay the copyright costs.
As you can see, copyright infringement cases are cases in which someone violates the rights of a copyright owner, as provided by 17 USC §106, or of the author as provided in §106A. These copyright infringement cases can be taken to either criminal or civil court, and can carry with it a hefty fine.
Copyright infringement cases are brought upon people who violate copyrights every day. In recent times, you?ll find many copyright cases in relation to electronic copyrights ? such as those you?d find on a website or PDF file, as well as other digital media such as music and audio files.
It?s probable that you?ve seen copyright cases brought against the common person ? such as a child or family ? for downloading digital music in the form of MP3s. In the current internet age we?re in, it?s not surprising to see so many music and video copyright cases brought to us because of peer to peer file sharing made possible by the internet. You can be certain that until people know the rules of copyright, and downloading copyrighted material from the internet that we?ll see many more copyright cases.
Learning How to Become a Writer in Three Steps (how to become a writer) Becoming a writer is hardly a simple feat. To become a writer a person must practice and work hard to become a writer. It can be said that many writers are writers, but few of them know how to become a writer. The label ?writer? is just simply a label, it is all the hard work and determination of reaching that status that truly gives the writer that name, and makes them worthy of the title. There are three simple steps that any writing can take that will give the title of ?writer,? while making them worthy of it. The first step to becoming a writer is to claim yourself as a writer. Many writers believe that they cannot be known as writers until they are published, but this is not true. Anyone who thinks of themselves as a writer, and writes on regular basis should title themselves as a writer. Many unpublished writers have the habit of saying they want to write, or saying that they write, instead of saying ?I?m a writer. When learning how to become a writer, it is necessary for writers to realize that you don?t have to be published to be known as a writer. Although, it may seem ideal for introductions and make it easier for other to see you as a writer, being published does not make one a writer. Writers should see themselves as people who write, and not as people who write for a living. For most writers, being published is validation of their status as a writer and even a path to success, but there are many published writers who are not very successful, famous, or rich. However, being published is a great way to show your work to an audience, and gain recognition, no matter how big or small. On the path to becoming writing there are many who lose sight of the fact that they don?t stop writing once they are published, so it is not wise to only write to be published. There are many ways to claim yourself as a writer, and in this step to learning how to become a writer there are smaller steps that help you proclaim yourself as a writer. First, say the words aloud to yourself, and repeat them as many times as possible until they are believable to you and others around you. Next, find a specific place for your writing, which can be a room, section of a room, or a studio. It is also important to make the ?writing space? as comfortable as possible, and to make it viable to your writing needs. Then, it is important to get the proper writing tools, such as pens, pencils, notebooks, and a computer that is used specifically for your writing. Aspiring writers can also find lessons on how to become a writer in style books, which should be kept as a writing tool also. It is also helpful to befriend other writers, and read their work and others as a writer and discuss passages of books or chapters with other writers. The second step to becoming a writer is to make time to write. When learning how to become a writer, novices will always be advised to make time for their writing. Many aspiring writers usually mess up on this step, and although they want to be writers they slack on how much they write, so many writers are left with unfinished works. It is important to set aside a particular time or day for writing and to stick to that schedule, because deviance from a writing schedule usually means unfinished work. The final step to becoming a writer is by far the simplest. To become a writer it is imperative that you write. Writing is the simplest step to becoming a writer and the most important step. When learning how to become a writer, you must take some time out and write.
Dove Beauty Product Lover? Get Free Products! The Internet is a great resource for many things in everyday live. Whether someone loves food, toys or health care products, it is available on the Internet. Many companies even offer free samples of their new or changed products to customers. One of these companies is Dove. The Dove web page offers anyone free samples, trial sizes and sometimes even full size promotion offers to anyone interested. On the companies web page a whole page is dedicated to their current offers and free samples. The free samples of Dove are available to anyone over 18 years of age living in the United States. The promotions and trial sample products change frequently and therefore there is not guarantee that one can get the product seen on the page a few days or weeks ago. The trials are shipped directly to the customer?s home and area true product of Dove. Anything from lotions to hair care and other company products might be offered for trial on this page. Sometimes the company also offers coupons, discounts and rebates for certain products on this web page. Getting free products for dove beauty products lovers is actually very easy. All the dove lover has to do is visiting the Dove Special offers page and fill out a form to request the sample or samples. From there the company takes care of the rest and ships the products to the customer while supplies last. The forms that the customer has to fill generally ask for the name, address, e-mail address and birth date. As with so many things on the Internet, one should move carefully giving away certain information. While name and address are necessary for delivery of the product and this information does not bare such a great risk, it is okay to give away this information. When it comes to the birth date and e-mail, one should be more careful. The birth date of a person can be used in identity theft, and even though this is a big company and the company itself will not steel the identity, the Internet is the medium the user uses to enter the information and therefore it is necessary to be cautious. It is always better to not have ones birth date float in cyberspace available for anyone seeking to do wrong. Many dove lovers have commented that they did not have any problems or increased mail after entering their e-mail address, but if one worries about this kind of thing, there is always the possibility to use a free e-mail account, that is used as a dummy in such cases. Sometimes, some of the Dove offers are not listed on the free samples page at Dove right away, since they are part of another promotion and therefore it is also essential to check some of the other freebie pages for Dove sample offers. The various freebie online pages offer a collection of all links that currently lead onto free Dove products and are therefore very useful in the search for samples. Since the Internet is not always the answer, dove lovers also should make sure to check stores for any promotions. Often time?s companies sent stores free samples to distribute to their customers to get them trying something new, and to spread their product to a wider variety of customers. This is the harder way to get to free samples, since these promotions are not generally on a calendar as such and therefore one has to either know when through store employees or has to be a t the right time at the right place. The best bet for Dove lovers is still the free sample page that the company offers.
How to Use a Sample Written Proposal (sample written proposal) Writing a proposal is not an easy feat. For many, it is one of the most difficult things they will ever do in their entire lives. However, there is help for those who are confused about the proposal writing process. A sample written proposal can be used as a guide for the confused writer, and can help them with the process of writing their own proposal. Proposals usually have seven components, which include the Table of Contents, Mission Statement, Abstract, Statement of Need, Project Rationale Incorporating Literature Review, Project Narrative, and Attachments. All of these features can be found in sample proposals, which provide writers with an example of how these sections should be organized. A table of contents is used to provide a comprehensive guide to the proposal, so that readers are able to find what they need and find areas of importance within the proposal. A sample written proposal is an excellent guide to writing a mission statement. A mission statement should be 50 words or less, and states the mission of the project. The statement is used to clarify and state the project?s primary goal, and allows the reader to instantly understand what the writer is proposing without reading the entire proposal. The second section of a proposal is the abstract. It is vital to a proposal that an abstract is well-written, and initial proposal reviews or ?first cuts? are often based on the abstract. The abstract of a proposal should be written after the mission statement, and should be changed over time, as the proposal develops further. Most proposal drafters will see that abstracts should be clear and understandable to all readers, including lay readers, and should be suitable for publication. Proposal abstracts should be written in third person, and should include objectives, methods to be employed, and the possible impact of the proposed project. Statement of need is the next part of a proposal. Many writers could benefit from a sample proposal when writing this section, because some drafters tend to write about more than one problem, or present their problem incorrectly. The Statement of need is the section where the drafter presents the problem that must be solved. In this section, drafters should avoid circular logic in the development of their statement of need, as it decrees that the lack of a solution is the problem. It is important to use logical progression in the statement of need, and the proposer must prove that they have an understanding of the problem. The statement should be closed with a discussion of what else is being done to solve the problem, and lead into the narrative with a description of how your idea is different and essentially better than all others. The Project Rationale Incorporating Literature Review is the next section of a proposal. All samples written proposals will have this section, as proposals must incorporate a theoretical basis with a discussion of literature. The rationale for the project should come from evidence found in the relevant literature. A sample written proposal will show drafters how to develop this section and show them how all proposals should incorporate current research into their projects. The project narrative is the sixth section of the proposal, which has six main sections. Some organizations require different proposal narratives, so in this aspect, it may be better to obtain sample proposals from several different organizations. The six sections of the project narrative section of a proposal include goals and objectives, proposed activities, facilities, resources, and project management, evaluation, outreach and dissemination, and sustainability. The final section of a proposal is the attachments? section. Generally, attachments include the bibliography, letters of support/endorsement, and letters of publication. Drafters can also benefit from a sample written proposal when creating this section, as it will provide an example of how the section should be organized and incorporated in the overall proposal. Writing a proposal is an extensive project, and sample proposals can be used to reduce pressure while providing the proper form needed for an excellent proposal.